The concept of neurological rehabilitation or neurorehabilitation is based on a simple principle: the central nervous system develops and organizes itself sequentially according to a pattern, through the interaction of the body and the environment.
When we are born our nervous system matures spontaneously and is organized in a predictable way. In a naturally manner it goes through the various levels and phases of development.
The environment inputs of information reach us through our five senses or sensory channels (hearing, sight, touch, smell and taste). The brain will interpret them and the child usually responds through movement, language and the manual mode.
Thanks to these inborn and environmental factors, the nervous system is developed from the most basic levels of primitive reflexes up to controlled muscle activity to finally culminate in the most complex and sophisticated functions (language and thought, reasoning, logic, abstraction, etc.).
It is essential that the brain matures gradually in each of its levels of development. In most cases, the child’s development occurs naturally in a healthy environment through affection, socialization and upbringing.
This maturation process can be interrupted for several reasons: a lack of stimulation and / or bonding (as this can sometimes be the case with adopted children), health problems such as strokes, problems during pregnancy or by childbirth such as foetal distress or prematurity, etc. The development may be affected and as a result, maturation disorders and neurological disorganization show up. This is when the child or adult can not develop it´s optimal capabilities. In those cases, it would be suitable for a systematic treatment of neurorehabilitation to normalize the functions poorly developed and reach the real potential of the patient.
The same happens when there has been an injury or some sort of brain damage. Treatments are aimed at stimulating the unaffected brain areas to compensate the injured functions so that they can reorganize. This capacity to reorganize the brain has been called neuronal plasticity or neuroplasticity. Therefore, it is not to “cure” but to achieve a neurological reorganization of the brain to optimize its resources.